We would like to thank you for choosing us to have your surgery in our hospital. We know surgery can be uncomfortable, thus we strive to make your surgical journey as smooth and pain free as possible. Therefore, it is important for you to understand the process of surgical procedure to ensure you have a wonderful surgical experience.

Preoperative procedures are designed to improve the outcome of the surgery, decrease the risk for complications, and make the surgery as safe and effective as possible.

Patients who receive general anesthesia, which renders them unconscious, must refrain from eating or drinking for at least 6 hours before surgery.

Fasting before surgery

  • It’s a precautionary measure to prevent pulmonary aspiration, which occurs when stomach contents enter the lungs, potentially blocking airflow and putting patients at risk for serious infections like pneumonia. However, modern anesthesia techniques make pulmonary aspiration much less likely. And when it does happen, it almost never results in long-term complications or death.
  • Nothing is to be taken by mouth after midnight, on the night before the procedure as you need to be keep fasting for 6 hours before surgery.
  • You can drink small amount of clear water up to 2 hours before surgery.
  • Sometime you may ask to take pre-operatively carbohydrate loading to optimise your recovery after surgery. Instruction will be given for this special drink

Medications to Avoid Before and/or After Surgery

  • Before undergoing surgery, it’s important to make your health care provider and surgical team aware of all over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications and herbal or dietary supplements you’re taking. Some medications can promote excessive bleeding and must be avoided for a period of time—prior to surgery and/or after the procedure—and other drugs can cause an adverse interaction with anesthesia.
  • Discontinuing prescription and over-the-counter medications that “thin” the blood, such as aspirin is necessary prior to surgery. Whether a drug is held or administered is based on the patient’s medical condition, the type of drug, and the scheduled surgical procedure. Patients who take prescription medications on a regular basis must discuss this with the surgeon.
  • Preparation for surgery may begin days before the procedure. Surgeries involving the digestive system require special drinks, laxatives, and an altered diet. The digestive tract must be as empty as possible before surgery to prevent leakage of its contents into the abdominal cavity.

Arrival at the Hospital

  • If surgery is being done on an outpatient basis, you must arrange for someone to be with you upon discharge. Even though the anesthesia has worn off, grogginess can last several hours and it is unsafe to drive.
  • If surgery is being done on an inpatient basis, you checks into a room. Most patients return to their room after surgery, but those undergoing complex surgical procedures and those who have complications may go to the intensive care unit (ICU).
  • After arrival, time is needed to prepare you for the procedure and sometimes, the time of surgery is changed due to cancellations or emergencies.
  • You must sign an informed consent form acknowledging that you are aware of risks and complications, type of anesthesia, and that the surgeon has explained the operation to you. The surgery will not proceed unless the consent form is signed.
  • You are usually asked to remove personal items (e.g., jewelry, eyeglasses, hairpieces, contact lenses, dentures) before surgery

Before Surgery

  • The doctor who administers the anesthesia (anesthesiologist) will meet you and performs a brief physical examination; takes a patient history; and obtains information regarding medication used on a regular basis, drug allergies, and prior adverse reactions to anesthesia. This information helps the anesthesiologist select the most suitable anesthetic agents and dosages to avoid complications.
  • You are usually taken to a preoperative or holding area before surgery. An intravenous line (IV) is started here if you do not already have one. A sedative may be given by injection, through the IV, or occasionally, orally, to help you relax.

Pain After Surgery

  • Most patients experience discomfort after the anesthesia wears off. Some experience pain and nausea and others have minimal soreness. You would be asked to rate their pain on a 1–10 scale to determine their level of discomfort.
  • Slight pain is 1–2; annoying pain, 3–4; significant pain, 5–6; severe pain, 7–8; and excruciating pain, 9–10.
  • The pain scale helps nurses and physicians determine the proper pain medication.
  • After receiving the medication, you may be asked again to rate their pain to evaluate the medication’s effectiveness.

Postoperative Care

The preoperative period is a good time for you to ask questions about what will happen after surgery and knowing what to expect and can help ease the fear that things are not going right.

Seeing Family after Surgery

Family members are usually allowed to see you once the anesthesia has worn off and have been transferred to their room. There are usually areas outside operating theater where the family can wait while the surgery is in progress.

Getting Back to Routine after Surgery

How soon you can get up, shower, and eat depends on the type of surgery, recovery, and the treatment plan. Most patients can get out of bed the day after surgery.

Hospital Discharge after Surgery

The surgeon determines when you can be discharged from the hospital. In most cases,you must be able to walk, eat, drink, and urinate, and must no longer need IV fluids or medication.

Returning to Work after Surgery

The ability to return to work or school, drive, climb stairs, and lift heavy objects depends on the type of surgery, recovery, and the patient’s overall health and age.

Possible Risks and Complications of Surgery

Possible Risks and Complications of Surgery

Having surgery can be a frightening experience for many people. Fortunately, modern medicine has come a long way and the risk of complications is lower than ever before. This is not to say that there are no risks. No surgery is risk-free, but understanding the possible outcomes can help individuals make the best decisions for themselves and their loved ones. Please read more about the potential complications that can occur below.


Complications that can occur during/after surgery

All operations and procedures carry the risk of unsuccessful results, complications, injury or even death, from both known and unforeseen causes, and no warranty or guarantee is made as to result or cure. you have the right to be informed of:

  • Anesthesia Complications –General anesthesia is very safe for most people. Even individuals with serious health conditions can usually undergo general anesthesia without any serious problems. Many people will experience grogginess or confusion when first waking up. Other symptoms after anesthesia include nausea, headache, dizziness, sore throat, tiredness, shivering, dry mouth, vomiting or mild hoarseness. These should all go away in a short period of time. However, severe reactions, through rare, can include stroke, heart attack, brain damage and death.
  • Hemorrhage –Hemorrhage means bleeding. If the patient loses too much blood from the site of surgery it can lead to shock. Treatment for hemorrhage includes IV fluids, blood plasma or blood transfusion or further surgery to stop the bleeding.
  • DVT/Blood Clots –During post-op many surgeries have an increased risk of developing a blood clot in the veins of the calf. This is called deep venous thrombosis (DVT). This happens because the body naturally increases its clotting cascade in an attempt to stop the bleeding from surgery. DVTs can cause lung problems including collapsed lungs therefore surgeons will take every step possible to prevent them. Anti-coagulating medications are sometimes prescribed, and patients are encouraged to get up and walk as soon as possible after surgery. Always be sure to follow all post-operative instructions carefully.
  • Post-Operative Lung Infections –It is important to exercise the lungs after undergoing any surgery that uses anesthesia. Lying down for an extended period and some medications taken for surgery can cause an individual to not breathe deeply. When lungs are not working at their full potential it can lead to poor oxygen levels which increases the risk of developing pneumonia.
  • Wound Infections –Infections can occur when bacteria enter the body at the site of surgery. They can delay healing and spread to nearby organs and tissue. Wound infections are usually treated with a round of antibiotics. In more serious cases a procedure or surgery may be necessary to clean or drain the infected area


The following conditions can increase the risk of complications during surgery:

Heart disease– the stresses of surgery put extra strain on the muscles of the heart to maintain cardiac output. Additionally, the agents in anesthesia can depress cardiac function.
Hypertension – increases the risk of stroke or respiratory complications with anesthesia.
High blood pressure – increases the risk of stroke after surgery.
Stroke – People who have a history of stroke are more likely to have an additional stroke after surgery. They also have an eight-fold risk increase of mortality within 30 days after surgery.
Bleeding disorders – Bleeding disorders such as hemophilia increase the risk of hemorrhaging before, during and post-surgery.
Obesity – Obesity increases the risks of wound infections, more surgical blood loss and a longer operation time.
COPD, asthma or other lung conditions – Agents found in anesthesia can sometimes decrease respiratory functions, increasing the risk of severe hypoventilation.
Kidney problems – increase the risk of stroke after surgery.
Diabetes – can increase the susceptibility to infection and when there is an associated circulatory impairment, wound healing is impaired.
Obstructive sleep apnea – Anesthesia has been shown to increase the upper airway collapsibility in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea.
Smoking – Smoking increases the risks of complications from anesthesia.
Abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs – Addiction to alcohol and/or drugs can cause an unpredictable reaction when under anesthesia.